I came across the term 'Camera mapping' and searched for some tutorials. I found that it's just pasting the images on objects, very much like UV unwrapping.
So what is the difference?
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Camera mapping is basically a type of uv-unwrapping. In general you use regular uv-unwrapping if you want to apply a texture directly to a face, and camera mapping if you want to apply an image taken from the perspective of the (viewport) camera to an entire mesh.
It is a method which allows you to make an illusion of moving through some real scene. You match the virtual (Blender's) camera with the real footage camera, take a "screenshots" from the footage, edit them by a photo-editor and map those photos to Blender objects which help to mimic the real scenery. This way you can "reconstruct" the real scene and add custom CG objects into it.
It is often misrepresented as Camera Tracking / Matching which is a different thing.
Camera Mapping might reference the
Camera output of the
Texture Coordinate node, which provides a similar result to UV-unwrapping using
Project from view, with the difference that it's depending on the current position of the camera in every frame and not calculated once.