I was able to produce the following result. The planet is all one mesh with complex nodes. The god rays are a separate mesh with a keyframed Vector > Mapping > Location: value. The base is separate as well and uses the setup from How do I create metal materials in Cycles?
The planet is a UV sphere. The "god rays" are a Cone. The steel emitter is a Cylinder with a Bevel modifier and some Edit Mode editing (closing the gap between the beveled edges, adding the depression in the middle, etc.). There is also an Edge Split modifier and a Subdivision Surface modifier in that order, which were added after the Bevel modifier was applied.
Bevel modifier settings:
Current modifier stack:
The following is the nodes for the planet. The leftmost nodes are mostly for mapping and bumping the Image Texture. The leftmost Layer Weight and Math > Add mix adds the Emission ring around the outside of the sphere. The Layer Weight > Facing and ColorRamp add some transparency around the edges. The Wireframe is self-explanatory. The Light Path > Is Shadow Ray takes away most of the object's original too-visible shadow, making it just visible enough.
The following is the nodes for the "god rays." These could probably be improved on a bit. The yellow Vector > Mapping value is obviously keyframed; it's what created the cool shifting effect at the beginning. The small Vector > Mapping > Scale: > Z: value stretches out the Noise Texture to make the rays look more straight. The Light Path > Is Camera Ray makes it a bit more transparent. The Light Path > Is Shadow Ray takes away most of the object's original too-visible shadow, making it just visible enough.
The following is the nodes for the steel emitter. They are better explained in How do I create metal materials in Cycles?
The .blend file:
I personally would not recommend any more transparency (mistiness) because you start to lose visible detail. However, if you are dead set on it, you can do one thing.
Before the Wireframe factored shader, add another Mix Shader with the previous and transparency. Add a Noise Texture run through a Bright/Contrast node. This will create a patchy effect.
Test render with new nodes:
As for straight up mist, you would be best to go with volumetrics, but that's not exactly my speciality. You can look at Holographic lighting in Cycles for suggestions, though. There are some pretty good ones.