There are two common ways to add eyes to a head. First I'll describe how I do it when the eyes are meshes that are part of the head object:
Here is a head, consisting of 1 object. The object consists of two meshes, that I nickname half-a-head and left-eye:
Only half a head because I'm mirroring to save effort. They eyeball is a simple sphere ...
Yes, as you already wrote, the original bones are saved on the last layer. All bones are prefixed by ORG-. You can use them to re-create a new metarig with this script: Rigify->Generate Rig doesn't create all rig layers in the properties ui. There are two versions of the script. The updated one is for Blender 2.9.
To re-create a metarig do the ...
In Rigify's metarigs, every chain of bones starts with the first bone which has a "Rig type" assigned in pose mode.
So, you can create a similar metarig and check which rig type assignement is missing.
In pose mode, select the control bone you want to alter, go to bone properties, viewport display, and use the scale value.
If more than one bone are selected and you press Alt button when validating, the same scale is applied to all selected bones.
You can also edit the shapes, they are nothing but a simple mesh, note that the edit has to be performed ...
The problem is automatic calculation of bend rotation on Rigify's part, it uses the bends and rotations of joining bones to try and figure it which way they should be bending.
in edit mode Recalculate the all finger bone rolls to -z axis.
go into pose mode and click on the upper 3rd bone of each finger(individually).
In bone settings change bend rotation ...
I've downloaded your file, and unfortunately, the problem is a fairly difficult one to solve. I'm not sure anyone can explain the solution well in a single answer, so the best I can do is point you in the right direction to look for solutions.
If you look at your model, the mesh around the elbow looks like this
In blender this is known as bad topology ...
If you regenerate the rig, it generates a new one and replace the previous. But animation data stored separately in Data blocks. So what you need to do:
Open Dope sheet and change its type to Action editor. In the center of the header you will see the data block:
Press Shield icon to make sure, that block will not be removed. And keep in mind the name of it....
First, your model has duplicated vertices. Remove them with a Merge By Distance (M) in Edit mode.
Furthermore, the knees have overlapping faces. You need to remove the larger ones:
To fix the twisting, you need more loops along the forearm and legs, otherwise there's no way the geometry can 'smooth' the twisting from wrist to elbow. With more loops you can ...
There are different solutions for this. People may tell you to just use the "Deform bones only" option in the FBX export settings. Unfortunately, it's not that simple. Non-deform bones that are in a parent-child relationship with the actual deform bones will be exported (because, reasons).
One of the simplest solutions is this addon.
As said, this is to improve your weight painting in case of mesh flipping issues during twist movments.
You can modify the number of limb segments produced by the metarig in Bone Properties > Rigify Type.
For example, if I set the left arm Limb Segments to 1:
The metarig will produce a rig with 2 segments per metarig bone for the right arm and only one ...
You need to smooth out the weights between the shoulder and arm. The blur brush in weight paint mode can work quite well for this for this.
The Blur brush is a separate tool from the standard brushes and can be found in the left hand side tool menu.
You may also need to add a root/body bone and weight the stationary vertices to that, then blend between them. ...
The mistake is step 6 "and selected body mesh along with bones and parented them with automatic wieghts"
You parented the mesh to the metarig, and then the generated rig to the mesh:
metarig → mesh → rig
That's wrong. Correct relationship is:
rig → mesh
Clear the parent relationship (Alt+P) of the mesh and the rigs. The metarig is only used to ...
The deform bones are the only bones that actually deform the mesh. Their name begins with DEF- and they are on layer 30. Almost all of them are green-colored. This means they have constraints. The spine deform bones have Copy Transform and Stretch To constraints with the tweak spine bones (layer 5) as their target.
The torso control (layer 4) has some ...
The properties to control the Rigify rig are in the N-panel.
(You need to confirm the script security warning if you open the file the first time after Blender started because it runs some initialization script. Be careful if you have downloaded the model from the internet. The included script may be harmful.)
Depending on which control bone you select you ...
(Addendum in addtion to the Alexandre Marcati's answer)
Your "Edit5" looks good. Keep in mind that your model is really low poly. It has only 484 vertices and faces.
When the palm of the hand points up the faces of the edge loop must rotate by about 90° around the X-axis at the elbow and roughly another 80° to reach the armpit. That's about 170° ...
There a few things you need to fix:
1) To have the arms and legs bend in the right direction you need to adjust the metarig and make the elbows bend a tiny bit backward and the knee forward:
Top view on the metarig to fix the elbows
Then update the rig with Generate Rig. Make sure the rig armature is visible when you press the button.
2) The arm doesn't move ...
Moving by rotation is referred as FK animation, while moving by grabbing is referred as IK animation.
Rigify lets you choose which one to use for every limb, including the options to switch from one to another through the IK/FK switches and snapping options.
So, simply select one hand controller and move the IK/FK slider toward FK in order to animate with ...
The mesh has a collection of Vertex groups that have the same name as the deforming bones in the armature. To see what vertices are in a given Vertex group, in Edit Mode
switch to vertex select mode to make it easier to see
in the Object Data Properties panel click on the vertex group that has the same name as the bone you are interested in.
click the ...
After a little bit of twiddling I found that the problem was bad bone placement. In the metarig that I built for the character, the top eyelid bones were different length and zig-zagging through the top lid. A more careful placement fixed the issue.
For optimal positioning it seems that 4 bones should be roughly equal in length and slightly "inside"...
Why not use bpy.ops.preferences.addon_enable(module="") ?
addon = bpy.context.preferences.addons.get('rigify')
if not addon:
In Rigify the bones you use to control the rig are non deforming, while all deforming bones are hidden in the 29th layer (counting 00-31).
You can also select a vertex and read its weight assignements in the "N" properties panel, and select the relevant vertex group.
When you select a bone that hasn't an associated vertex group (like all non ...
Not necessarily. It usually means that the rig was generated, because the most common use of the ORG prefix is to identify the bones as they existed in the model rig. There are many other add-ons that generate rigs from a mode and keep the original bones with the ORG prefix added, and at least one rigger has said on Blender StackExchange that they use the ...
I also think that the default rot of Rigify rigs isn't well suited for graph editor editing.
You can change this behaviour selecting the Metarig, then go to pose mode, select the first bone of the arm bones chain and change its rotation axis from "Automatic" to "X manual" in its Rigify Type preferences.
In a similar way you can correct ...
Since your rig appears to have a complete set of bones and IK, does it also have "pole targets"? Pole Targets are often used in conjunction with IK bones, for example using the Elbow PT so that the arm does not look contorted.
IK Solver in ref manual
Some constraints like Stretch To is depended on length of the bones. You can see, that constraint has Original Length property, that should contain the length of the bone. If you change scale in edit mode, the length property in constraint will not update, and this will cause problems in the rig.
Pressing X button near Original Length property will reset ...
This happened because you created the bones, and scale the root of each finger, but later placed the second falange manually.
Save an alternative file with a different name, we're going to do deep changes:
Enter edit mode on your METARIG, delete your hands and fingers.
go back to OBJECT mode.
Create another meta rig (shift+A>Armature>human metarig). ...