Looks like you have a particle emitter on the earth object. Go to your particle settings and check to make sure "Show Emitter" is enabled. The screenshot below it's disabled so it wouldn't show in the final render (but it will show in the viewport render), make sure that box is checked.
Couple of options without seeing the file. Check the "disable in Render" filter is not selected. An example is attached where the cross indicates that it will not be rendered
The next check is you mention that you go to the composition workspace. Have you checked the "Use Nodes" option, this is off by default and so nothing is visible.
Alternatively you ...
you can check if relevant objects are enabled/disabled in render.
I usually prefer to show it in outliner like this:
click on filter icon and activate the button with camera icon
then you can see it in outliner and check if object is enabled/disabled for rendering
and since you are using modifiers you should check if render is enabled for modifier too (...
What happens if you copy blenderplayer.app over to that empty folder. Then, you could use it. There is also likely a preferences input for the player path. I once copied blenderplayer.app from one computer to another through Google drive, I think it worked (it was a while ago). I am currently not with my computer, but good luck!
Blender usually renders considerably faster on linux, but if you are not sure wether you should install linux or not, it will be easier to just create a linux live usb stick and boot on it. This way you can try linux and render stuff without making any changes to your system. When you are done, you can simply plug out the usb stick and boot on your os. The ...