First, add your text, rotate it so it's "upright". Convert it to a mesh, and notice in wireframe mode that the topology looks like garbage:
Add a Decimate Modifier set to Planar to clean (most of it) up. Good enough for now. Apply the modifier.
Enter edit mode and select the whole mesh. Select the Spin Tool from the bar on the left.
Use one of ...
I would keep it as simple as possible, making the front profile from a 12-sided cylinder, no cap, duplicated, and rotated to match the reference..
Cut them in half, and work under a mirror modifier, back-to-front.
With the Header option 'Automerge' checked, and Snap set to 'Vertex' and 'Active'
K Knife, with C to constrain to horizontal and Z to cut ...
One way.. (I'm always using this for mirroring)
Alt-LMB select edge loop
V rip, with your cursor on the waste side of the loop.
Hover, and L select connected under cursor
X delete faces.
.. which can speed stuff up, sometimes: you can do it from any view.
Will throw the bisect operator into the ring.
For the top or bottom halve of the default cylinder could bisect using local origin (or any point with z = 0) and normal aligned with z axis.
The clear inner / outer remove geometry below / above the plane defined by point and normal. Both will leave only the cut.
Fill, fills the cut.
The threshold ...
You need to check the option to include hidden vertices in your selection:
(Also called "X Ray"-Mode)
The Hotkey is Alt+Z.
As Gordon says, you need enough topology to be able to bend your font. What you can do is create your text, convert to mesh, extrude a bit, Shift to repeat the extrusion:
Create an empty close to your object. Give your object a Simple Deform modifier on Bend mode, Angle > -90°, with the empty as Origin:
Rotate the empty on X (use the Ctrl key to rotate ...
Set the view to Front Orthographic (Numpad 1)
Set the viewport shading mode to Wireframe (Z4)
Press Tab to switch into Edit Mode
Enable Vertex Selection
Select one half of the sphere
Remove the selected vertices by pressing X and choose Vertices from the menu
...Or, if your links were still an Array, you could make that with an Object Offset:
The small link-object-axes are shown at the origin. The larger Empty is translated in X by the link-distance, and rotated around X by 90. Every subsequent element will be rotated with respect to the last, by 90 degrees.
If the chain has a Curve modifier, too, it's sensible ...
From what you have, you can use bevel to come close to what you want. Select all the edges that you want to round and then CtrlB (tweak the factors in the Operator box on the bottom left of your 3D view):
You can create a profile with a Mirror modifier, shift it from its origin:
Give it an Array modifier in Object Offset mode, with an empty as Object that is placed at its origin. Rotate the empty 72° on the Z axis:
Begin to extrude up the profile, you can even mirror on the Z axis if the shape is symmetrical on Z:
Choose Transform Pivot Point > Individual Origins, then R to rotate and double X (or Y or Z, depending on your links orientation) should work, unless your links are meshes that are part of the same object, in that case separate them with P (Separate) > By Loose Parts, then you can join them again with J.
You could create a Curve > Curve Spiral > Archemedians (you need to enable the addon called Add Curve: Extra Objects). Also create the profile (like a 4 pointed star or more):
In the Properties panel > Object Data > Geometry > Bevel, click on Object and choose the star as Object:
Twist the profile, play with the spiral, you can change its ...
No, there is no "magical focal length". And although it might look strange that's how perspective works... it distorts objects in 3d space perspectively.
However - and that's how you can do it with a real life camera for example - to minimize the perspective distortion you just have to go further away from the object and use a higher focal length. ...
As Hiserod says, normal map would make it lighter, but if you want to model the grooves for real (but you could also bake them at the end), you could begin with this type of shape (mirrored), shift it from its origin:
Give it the following modifiers: Array (vertically), Array (around with an object offset), Lattice, Subdivision Surface, reshape with the ...
It's the expected behaviour: by extruding that vertex you're creating a "non-manifold" geometry. Check this answer for understanding what is manifold and why you should avoid non-manifold geometry.
What is non-manifold geometry?
It depends which one you want. There are (apparently) lots of regular tetrakaidecahedra. The truncated octahedron in your main references can be made like this...
... using the shipped add-on Add Mesh: Extra Objects > Regular Solid > Octahedron, radius 1, with a vertex truncation of 2/3, which you can type in to the field.
It may be possible with Cloth simulation (and Pressure), if you don't succeed you could model this kind of mesh:
Then keep a low-poly version, duplicate, subdivide (with Smoothness at 1) and use the Crease brush in Sculpt mode to get this kind of folds (also use Shift in order to smooth the folds):
You can even use Cloth and Pressure to round it a bit if ...
Deleting the cubes used to cut the holes in the cube duplicated in the array fixed the problem in the primary cube without altering the cutouts of the primary cube or the duplicate instances with the same cutouts. -Fixed
In my example I've created a reference plane, subdivided like the world grid, set it child of my mesh, rotated the mesh as needed, created a loop cut (Ctrl R, enter), pressed GG to slide it along the edges, using the vertex snap option to have it snapping along the rotated grid.
The edge crease tool is very limited and will not give a good result in every situation. In my experience situations such as the one you're showing have to be dealt with good old retopology techniques.
Adding loops doesn't have to mess with the curve of the cylinder. Here is a suggestion on how you could deal with that crease without messing with the ...
You can do it with Geometry nodes like this:
In this "easy" case i took a line to distribute the "art"/suzanne on the points.
You can do the same with a curve. Just add a curve with the points you need. Convert it to mesh -> use this as "object info" and connect it to point instance instead of the "line primitive".
I would connect B + C into one mesh and just visually separate them via color (transparent).
How good or stabile they stand on the floor after the animation depends on your soft body settings + mesh.
If you provide blend file, we can work on that ;)
Rather than creating a new object, you could use your current object, create some edge loops:
Only keep a part selected:
Press AltE to Extrude Faces Along Normals:
Here is what it gives when you give your object a Subdivision Surface modifier (put additional edge loops if you want to sharpen the edges):
You can create several meshes within the same object, you can also join several objects with CtrlJ and they will be different meshes within the same object. As explained by Allen Simpson, you can select a whole mesh in an object with L.
I don't think you can model a photo that has a perspective quality in orthographic view. I mean, you can, but then you will have the result that you do. You should probably hit the key for orthographic front view (normally Numpad1) and then change the view to perspective (Numpad5) and model from that.
In Edit Mode I had to switch from the vertices selection mode to the edge selection mode, and that worked. This part of the interface.
To switch to the edges mode, it is the second button next to the Edit mode here. Then press the Del key on the keyboard to get the delete popup and delete Edges.