If on a spherical mesh, you can start with a cube (rotate its UV to fit your map), then add:
Subdivision modifier with "simple" algorithm (we don't want to smooth but just to give more geometry for the cast below)
Cast to sphere modifier
You can access a node input sockets by either their name or their rank using their inputs property:
distortion_socket = wave_texture.inputs['Distortion']
distortion_socket = wave_texture.inputs
Then you can set the value using default_value (the value not given by a link):
distortion_socket.default_value = 2
Solution for a single mesh using the White Noise texture (instead of Object > Random output)
Create a new UV map, and scale the UV islands to 0 (use Pivot > Individual Origins)
Add a White Noise texture, UV Map node to drive it, and ColorRamp to control it.
Using Eevee, you can use the "shader to RGB" node from a "glass" node. "shader to RGB" is like a prerendering from with we can get colors.
From it, we can use 2 color ramps: the first to control the light reflexion intensity and color and the other to control the level of transparency.
Color is given directly to the Principled ...