As already mentioned in other answers you can't edit object options after they are created. We don't have native "parametric primitives" in Blender yet, after the creation process they become regular "static" objects and loose any adjustable properties they had.
In an attempt to not leave you empty handed I'll try to present an alternative workflow: Be smart, use modifiers to your advantage.
If you foresee the need to adjust geometry after the fact, or edit parameters frequently, plan ahead, build your objects in a way that allows tweaking needed parameters easily.
This is where modifiers come in, they provide what is often called "non-destructive modeling."
If you need to, say, easily change the number segments of a cylinder, or frequently adjust its height then it would be smart to rather than of adding a regular mesh cylinder build one from scratch with modifiers instead.
Create a simple single vertex mesh with no actual faces whatsoever, add a Screw Modifier to it, then a Solidify Modifier. You now have a "Parametric Cylinder" you can easily adjust the number of segments and height of.
Just control parameters from the modifier stack. Height from the Solidify Thickness and segments from the Screw Steps. Replace the single vertex with an edge extending to the local origin and now you have top and bottom caps.
This is what is often called a "non-destructive workflow", where modifiers are kept "live" so they can be easily edited.
This will obviously not work every time nor for everything, and you can't always achieve every end goal without some destructive steps (like applying some modifiers), but be inventive and you can go a long way.
Use modifiers to your advantage, extend this to other tools like constrains, drivers, shapekyes etc., and you can go a long way in creating easily editable "parametric objects".
Here is a "Parametric Sphere" made from a single vertex mesh and two Screw modifiers.
You could even control radius with an additional Displace Modifier
A parametric 2D circle with inner and outer radius.