According to the Blender wiki here, as of Blender 2.78c (or around May 20, 2016), procedural cycles materials should display in the Blender viewport in "Material" mode. Unfortunately, this is not working for me.
Musgrave, Voronoi, Noise, Magic, and Brick textures all refuse to display in the viewport. Checker is the only one that works, and it doesn't shade properly.
Is there some option to enable GLSL for these? Could it be a graphics card issue?
I know there are several questions on here about this, but as of May 20 last year, this feature should be implemented. I am using the latest build of blender off GraphicAll, and am on Windows 7 64 bit.
Here is a screenshot of the result in material mode and my node setup: