I'll admit I'm not entirely sure why, but the issue seems to stem from the particles colliding with the plane at the bottom. If the object isn't closed so that all normals are facing outward, then the particles which get stuck in the collider cause flickering and the dynamics fail.
So, the solution to this problem is to add a solidify modifier to the plane collider at the bottom. To illustrate the difference before and after the adding the solidify modifier to the plane, I'll show you scaled down versions of frames 80 and 85.
As you can see above, the petals just seem to fall down with very minor rotation. If I were to render more frames, you'd see that some petals flicker in and out. This is definitely not desired.
And now you can see that the scene is completely changed now that there is no error. All the petals seem to rotate or translate to a different position.