I want to know if it's possible to make an object transparent just based on how the object is rendered when it's not transparent. I want this to avoid seeing the faces inside or on the other side of the object.
In the material editor (cycles) add a geometry node and look at the "Backfacing" output. Plug it into the fac of a new mix shader where one input is what you already have and the other is a completely white Transparent shader. You haven't uploaded a .blend file so I can't know what exactly you are doing but I hope this helps.