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Is there a way to check whether or not a Blender RNA or ID property is "Read-only" in python?

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Yes indeed there is. Here's a very simple example using a World datablock and the .is_property_readonly(*property*) function.

import bpy
scn = bpy.context.scene
wld = scn.world
for a_prop in wld.keys():
    if wld.is_property_readonly(a_prop) is True:
        print("The property, %s, is 'Read-Only'" % a_prop)

This code would produce the following output:

The property, cycles, is 'Read-Only'
The property, cycles_visibility, is 'Read-Only'

The function .is_property_readonly(*property*) will output a boolean value, either True or False.

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The property itself will have an is_readonly property.

Test code run in the py console.

>>> for prop in C.object.bl_rna.properties:
...     if prop.is_readonly:
...         print("%s (%s)" % (prop.name, prop.identifier))
...         
RNA (rna_type)
Users (users)
Is Updated (is_updated)
Is Updated Data (is_updated_data)
Is Indirect (is_library_indirect)
Library (library)
Preview (preview)
Type (type)
Mode (mode)
Local View Layers (layers_local_view)
Bounding Box (bound_box)
Proxy (proxy)
Proxy Group (proxy_group)
Material Slots (material_slots)
Modifiers (modifiers)
Constraints (constraints)

Not sure you can make custom ID properties ( eg obj["prop"]) read only.

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