There are several ways to do this in Blender. The first and maybe easiest is to click (at the top bar of the program) the little icon with two left cubes, and a tall right one. This will open a bar with different window layouts. Click the one that says "UV Editing." This will give a layout similar to what you want.
Your other option is to manually customize the layout to better fit your preference. To do what you want, look at the top right of the 3D Viewport window for three small lines. Click and hold down that button, and drag to the left. Now, you'll have two windows where the viewport used to be. In the left one (in the bottom left of the window), click the little icon showing a 3D cube. In the window that pops up, select "UV/Image Editor."
Now when you render, the render should show in the UV window instead of the viewport!