I usually use the PPA: thomas-schiex/blender for installing Blender. I had never problems before with it. In September 2016 I used Blender 2.78 RC, and it worked well. But in October I've installed Blender 2.78 release (using apt-get install command), and my Blender is not starting now. What to do? Thanks!
You don't need to use apt-get at all! Just download the zip from blender.org, extract it somewhere, then run the blender executable you will find inside the folder. That's what I did and it worked from the first time!
I've made the next attempt 'sudo apt-get upgrade' of my system today. Blender 2.78 was upgraded successfully and now it's starting well. I suppose the problem was really as @metaphor_set told - "the repo, that causes the failure". I think they finally fixed the build.