So I've been studying Blender's fluid simulation and I realized that after I set the folder's path to somewhere else other than Window's temp folder (C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp) the bake progress bar stays at 0% for some seconds and then disappears. No errors or anything (the log shows no errors either) . I tried this out on my Linux machine back at home and it worked fine (the Windows machine is at work).
I had the same problem. I had a special character (german ü) in the path of the blend-file, after removing that, everything worked fine.
I've been working with Fluids for the past month and also have not seen this problem. I can assign a folder and name for the cache and then read it back with a time offset in a different scene, and it all works fine.
Sometimes data corruption can creep into a file and produce odd behavior. Have you tried starting from scratch in a fresh startup?
Could also be something to do with your fluids setup. Perhaps you could post a file?