To run Blender on a machine without OpenGl support, you would need to:
Download the opengl32.dll or opengl64.dll from this link: http://download.blender.org/ftp/sergey/softwaregl/
Copy and paste the dll next to your blender.exe (the directory would typically be: C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender)
This enables Blender to open with software opengl legacy mode.
Sad but simple problem. You and I are in the same boat. Our computers' graphics cards do not support opengl 2.1. (you seem to be using Vmware, so check if your host computer has opengl 2.1 support.)
Anyway 2.77 simply will not run if you do not have opengl 2.1, period. (In most cases it is not worth looking in to updating your drivers, either your hardware supports it or it doesn't.)
The solution (and what I have to do for one machine) is to use blender 2.76. That version not only does not have the opengl 2.1 requirement, but overall will run on "older" systems.
I got the same problem with RDP to execute 2.77. But, it works well with TeamViewer. https://www.teamviewer.com/
You can use tscon to disconnect current remote session and launch blender outside remote session.
only problem is you have to reconnect remote session after blender is started.
after disconnection of remote session the terminal stays unlocked so the line
Rundll32.exe user32.dll, LockWorkStation locks the workstation after disconnection
last line starts blender
Put the following lines in a batch file and launch on remote machine as administrator
my start batch:
for /f "skip=1 tokens=3" %%s in ('query user %USERNAME%') do ( %windir%\System32\tscon.exe %%s /dest:console ) Rundll32.exe user32.dll, LockWorkStation "C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender\blender.exe"