I'm having a hard time trying to figuring out, how to add loop or cuts in the inner edges but not adding more geometry to the overall circular shape 'because it will connect in another mesh with the same amount of polys', can a kindly person help me ? Thanks in advance and here is a picture.
You should be able to get good topology by insetting the faces you want to extrude first.
In this case, I deleted the bottom of the cylinder before making any changes, then recreated with the topology I needed once all my supporting loops had been added.
If you need harder edges than supporting loops give, you can add an edge crease to the hard edges.
Try the Knife (K) tool: press K select a point of an edge, clic on another point in another edge, confirm the cut with enter key. Check in face mode the new faces created.