How can I render my scene so that the camera is in the same spot as the front orthographic viewport? The Front Orthographic view is exactly how I want it rendered, not by pressing NumPad 0.
Go to the front view by pressing NumPad 1. Then press Ctrl+Alt+NumPad 0 to set the camera to the current view. Then switch the camera from perspective to orthographic.
Unlike with a perspective camera, the local Z location of an orthographic camera is irrelevant. To render more or less of your scene, you must change the orthographic scale.