# How to copy constraints from one bone to another?

I've created some shapekeys driven by the bone controllers for my character. Then I gave constraints to the bones on the left side. Now I want to copy and paste them to the right side. Two questions:

• how to do it?
• is there a fast way to copy all of the constraints from left to right side?

You can use the script below. It's pretty quick and dirty, but works. The value of copyFrom in line 3 determines if you're copying from left-->right (if its value is "L") or right-->left ("R").

The armature must be selected for this to work.

import bpy

copyFrom = "L"
pBones = [ b for b in bpy.context.object.pose.bones if b.name[-2:] == ".%s" % copyFrom ]

for b in pBones:
for c in b.constraints:
otherSide = "R" if copyFrom == "L" else "L"
otherBone = bpy.context.object.pose.bones[
b.name.replace( ".%s" % copyFrom, ".%s" % otherSide )
]

nc = otherBone.constraints.new( c.type )

for prop in dir( c ):
# This is fairly ugly and dirty, but quick and does the trick...
try:

setattr( nc, prop, getattr( c, prop ) )
except:
pass


EDITED: As requested, here's the 3rd version of this script that: 1. Inverts the values of properties (turns target bone names from L to R and vice versa) 2. Switches between min and max values in properties between sides. 3. Turns influence 1 into 0 and 0 into 1. 4. For other numerical props that aren't min/max/influence, multiplies values by -1.

Works as described in this gif made by @Gonzou.

import bpy

copyFrom = "L"
pBones = [ b for b in bpy.context.object.pose.bones if b.name[-2:] == ".%s" % copyFrom ]

for b in pBones:
for c in b.constraints:
otherSide = "R" if copyFrom == "L" else "L"
otherBone = bpy.context.object.pose.bones[
b.name.replace( ".%s" % copyFrom, ".%s" % otherSide )
]

nc = otherBone.constraints.new( c.type )

for prop in dir( c ):
# This is fairly ugly and dirty, but quick and does the trick...
try:
constrProp = getattr( c, prop )
if type( constrProp ) == type(str()) and constrProp[-2:] in [".L", ".R"]:
# Replace string property values from L to R and vice versa
oppositeVal = constrProp.replace(".L", ".R") if constrProp[-2:] == ".L" else constrProp.replace(".R", ".L")
setattr( nc, prop, oppositeVal )
elif 'max_' in prop:
setattr( nc, prop, getattr( c, prop.replace( 'max', 'min' ) ) )
elif 'min_' in prop:
setattr( nc, prop, getattr( c, prop.replace( 'min', 'max' ) ) )
elif prop == 'influence':
# Influence 0 becomes 1 and 1 becomes 0
setattr( nc, prop, abs( constrProp - 1 ) )
elif type( constrProp ) in [ type( float() ), type( int() ) ]:
# Invert float and int values ( mult by -1 )
setattr( nc, prop, constrProp * -1 )
else:
# Copy all other values as they are
setattr( nc, prop, constrProp )
except:
pass

• Works great @TLousky :). Thanks! Is there a way to apply opposed constraints' values to the opposed side? – Paul Gonet Nov 17 '15 at 22:40
• Sure, @Gonzou. Inverse numerical values ( X -1) or bone references? (left to right)? or both? – TLousky Nov 17 '15 at 22:42
• Wow! Amazing edit! This is what I wanted :). The last option I would like to ask you for is a script that flips the values in a way shown in this .gif: giphy.com/gifs/… – Paul Gonet Nov 17 '15 at 23:47
• I visited your blog BTW. Really interesting stuff you've got there :O. Amazing works! – Paul Gonet Nov 17 '15 at 23:56
• You're right. I've missed that one O.o. Once again thank you VERY VERY MUCH for your help! – Paul Gonet Nov 19 '15 at 15:42

Blender has a built in way to copy bone constrains, but it only copies from one bone.

In pose mode, select the bone you want to copy the constraint to, then select the bone with the constraint (that way it is the active bone).

Then press Space to bring up the search box and type in "copy c", select "Copy Constraints to Selected Bones".

• Thanks @David♦. This works great! I also found out, that the option you mentioned can be found in the Pose Mode menu (Pose-->Constraints-->Copy Constraints to Selected Bones) – Paul Gonet Nov 18 '15 at 0:10
• @Gonzou PS you do not need the "@ david" whenever the system does not prompt it. (the author always gets pinged) How do comment @ replies work? – David Nov 18 '15 at 0:27
• Good to know. Thanks for a tip. I always wondered how it works BTW. – Paul Gonet Nov 18 '15 at 0:43

The problem: you don't always want to invert the sense of the influence. I don't know why this made sense originally. So I just ripped it out and made influence the same. That didn't work, however, as some bones really flew off into crazy-land when I did that. But all the various COPY_* constraints need to have influence left alone. So I did some if/else logic to take care of that case.

Also, many hundreds of my bones are named eg bone.R.001 instead of bone.001.R. This script failed in that case.

Also, I didn't know how to use it. How to use it in Blender 2.80+:

1. Create a Script tab. You probably already have one.
2. Load up the Python script into the window.
3. Select your armature and go into Pose Mode with it.
4. Run the script with the Run Script button in the upper right.
5. If you have a complex armature, it can take 30s to a minute to run. Be patient. For some reason you don't get any output until it's done running, so the output is just for debugging after a run is over.

Here's the improved script.

import bpy

"""
the 3rd version of this script that:

1. Inverts the values of properties (turns target bone names from L to R and
vice versa)
2. Switches between min and max values in properties between sides.
3. Turns influence 1 into 0 and 0 into 1.
4. For other numerical props that aren't min/max/influence, multiplies values
by -1.
"""

def print(data):
for window in bpy.context.window_manager.windows:
screen = window.screen
for area in screen.areas:
if area.type == 'CONSOLE':
override = {'window': window, 'screen': screen, 'area': area}
bpy.ops.console.scrollback_append(override, text=str(data), type="OUTPUT")

print ("STARTING ======")

copyFrom = "L"
pBones = [ b for b in bpy.context.object.pose.bones if ".%s" % copyFrom in b.name ]
for b in pBones:
otherSide = "R" if copyFrom == "L" else "L"
otherBone = bpy.context.object.pose.bones[
b.name.replace( ".%s" % copyFrom, ".%s" % otherSide )
]
#print(f"Removing Constraints on otherBone={otherBone}")
[ otherBone.constraints.remove( c ) for c in otherBone.constraints ]
for c in b.constraints:
print(f"constraints  b={b} / c={c} / otherBone={otherBone}")
nc = otherBone.constraints.new( c.type )

for prop in dir( c ):
# This is fairly ugly and dirty, but quick and does the trick...
try:
constrProp = getattr( c, prop )
if type( constrProp ) == type(str()) and (".L" in constrProp or ".R" in constrProp):
# Replace string property values from L to R and vice versa
oppositeVal = constrProp.replace(".L", ".R") if ".L" in constrProp[-2:] else constrProp.replace(".R", ".L")
setattr( nc, prop, oppositeVal )
elif 'max_' in prop:
setattr( nc, prop, getattr( c, prop.replace( 'max', 'min' ) ) )
elif 'min_' in prop:
setattr( nc, prop, getattr( c, prop.replace( 'min', 'max' ) ) )
elif prop == 'influence':
# Influence 0 becomes 1 and 1 becomes 0 - why?
# if this is a Copy Rotation/Location/Scale/etc constraint, we want to keep influence
if c.type[:5] == "COPY_":
setattr( nc, prop, abs( constrProp ) )
else:
setattr( nc, prop, abs( constrProp - 1 ) )
elif type( constrProp ) in [ type( float() ), type( int() ) ]:
# Invert float and int values ( mult by -1 )
setattr( nc, prop, constrProp * -1 )
else:
# Copy all other values as they are
setattr( nc, prop, constrProp )
except:
pass

print ("FINISHED ======")


This version of the script works for me much better, so I'm sharing it to the world!

• Note: this seems to completely break any IK constraints on bones. Pole angles are reversed, all influences zero. Also seems to break limit location/rotation constraints and stretch-to constraints. So... use with caution. – philo vivero Mar 4 '20 at 2:44