So, my problem is that I want to render my first proper ~10 sec animation in cycles and it all comes out black, except the sky background. Now when I display everything as rendered in my standard 3D view it all looks like it is supposed to be. What could be my mistake? I googled my problem already and did not find a proper solution... http://www.pasteall.org/blend/39100
Welcome! In future questions, please try to provide as much detail as possible, optimally with screenshots to explain the question or issue.
Specifically here, it appears you added an overriding faulty material (Material.002) that replaces all other materials in your scene.
To fix the issue, remove it by going to the Scene Tab in the Properties Window, scrolling down to the Layer property group, then clicking the delete ("X") button in the Material box.