The top picture is where I am now, and the bottom picture is where I want my topology. I basically want another two edges horizontally across the front bumper, but also want an edge loop around the light. Any ideas on how to achieve this? (or really, any ideas at all as to how I could model this correctly?
You can add the edges you want with the Loop Cut operator (⎈ CtrlR) for the edge loops and the Fill operator (F) for the standalone edges:
But when you try filling it in you may encounter some ngons and tris:
I'd suggest adding a couple more edge loops to handle these spots: