I think this is about the closest you can get with Cycles, but I'd love to be wrong.
It uses the refraction shader mixed with diffusion to get the basic texture, and the glossy shader to get the actual "florescence" (and the color that it will fluoresce).
The spheres and the plane at the bottom are all emitters, and you can see that the Suzanne mesh is a reddish hue where it catches light from the yellow sphere, and blue-purple where it catches the cyan sphere. This scene was rendered with 500 samples, no caustics, and blur glossy set to between 5 and 10. You can still see a bit of noise on Suzanne's head.
I think that adding the shaders to themselves should result in more light being "emitted" than received, but I'm not certain. If not, then there might not be a way to do that at present. It would be great if Blender had more ways to adjust the output from shader nodes, and more data on rays (besides length and type).