This looks like a lightning problem.
As you can see, all the object "showing up" are nearby to each other, with their visibility fading at greater distance from a certain point - the point where supposedly your point light will be.
You can see the effect of your light even in the viewport-shaded view: These objects are brighter than the object being "black" in your render viewport.
Viewport shading by default uses its own (additional) lighting setup so that objects are lighted properly from beginning when you start modeling an object.
You have that dropdown-box on the right side of the viewport render selections. In the rendered viewport
Scene World are enabled, which is the setting that will be used when actually rendering, but you can disable them there too which will lead the scene to be lighted by the vieport lighting settings also used in viewport shading.
So what your scene need is "just" some proper lightning.