Apparently this is a series of more than 1 questions actually, the part in bold sums it up.
Was experimenting with animations, armatures and instancing. Tested it by making a palm tree where the stem has it's own armature and the fronds each have their own too. The fronds' models and armatures are copies of a original made by instancing and making them real, each bone was renamed with the method ".000". There is where the problems start.
Each copy is assigned the newly created armature on the armature modifier and surprisingly the vertex groups are also renamed automatically, but actions do not copy. Have to make new action for each new armature, not sure if it's a limitation of instancing. Keyframes can be copied between each frond's armature's action with no problem though.
Renaming each bone of each real copy's armature makes the bones of the other copies that weren't touched yet be renamed in the exact same way, but bones of armatures that were already changed are not affected. Not sure if it's yet another limitation.
When the stem's and fronds' armatures are joined with the stem's as the main (last selected), in any number and in any way, any other armature not joined get the problem mentioned in the title. Copying the original frond's keyframes into the stem's action (now entire model's action) do not work properly anymore, even if bones are named propperly and there were no problems copying keyframes pre-joining.
Leaving the original frond unjoined, it's keyframes can be copied, but any other action it has become unnapliable despite appearing in Graph editor and being able to be set on the Action in Action Editor and Outliner. No other action produces visual effects anymore and selecting any action other than the one active when the other armatures were joined makes the active one not work anymore too.
One workaround is to join everything at the same time, but then the original loses the action even if it isn't joined. Other workaround is to first copy the original frond' keyframes, join just one frond model and armature to the stem, paste the keyframes then delete or unlist everything else, then just copy the bones inside the single armature and the fronds inside the single mesh both in edit mode.
Anyways, having any other armature and unnactive actions become phantoms after joining 2 armatures seems like quite the bug
Coudn't reproduce the issue despite it existing for about 3 days before, that is the reason the "post-joining" examples are "visualizations"