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I'm running Blender 2.93.2 on Ubuntu 18.04 (this script of mine https://gist.github.com/vadimkantorov/eb53ce740cb80c12444079875facff85)

It uses Cycles. I found this thread https://devtalk.blender.org/t/blender-2-8-unable-to-open-a-display-by-the-rendering-on-the-background-eevee/1436 that suggests that headless rendering is not supported with Eevee, but maybe it may work with Cycles.

Are there any workarounds you could recommend? Would disabling GPUs help?

DISPLAY=0.0 ./blender/blender-2.93.2-linux-x64/blender -noaudio --background --python meshrcnn_overlay_mesh.py -- --object-path meshrcnn/output_demo/room3/0_mesh_sofa_1.000.obj --background-path meshrcnn/output_demo/room3/0_mask_sofa_1.000.png

Blender 2.93.2 (hash 1eb06de2607a built 2021-08-04 00:16:44)
(  0.0000 sec |   0.0000 sec) Importing OBJ 'meshrcnn/output_demo/room3/0_mesh_sofa_1.000.obj'...
  (  0.0004 sec |   0.0004 sec) Parsing OBJ file...
    (  0.0331 sec |   0.0326 sec) Done, loading materials and images...
    (  0.0345 sec |   0.0340 sec) Done, building geometries (verts:2876 faces:5752 materials: 1 smoothgroups:0) ...
    (  0.0559 sec |   0.0555 sec) Done.
  (  0.0560 sec |   0.0559 sec) Finished importing: 'meshrcnn/output_demo/room3/0_mesh_sofa_1.000.obj'
Progress: 100.00%

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The following devices will be used for path tracing:
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- Intel Xeon Silver 4114 CPU @ 2.20GHz
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
- GeForce RTX 2080 Ti
Fra:1 Mem:11.86M (Peak 12.90M) | Time:00:01.32 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Synchronizing object | 0_mesh_sofa_1.000
Fra:1 Mem:12.17M (Peak 12.90M) | Time:00:01.32 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Initializing
Fra:1 Mem:12.17M (Peak 12.90M) | Time:00:01.32 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Waiting for render to start
Fra:1 Mem:12.17M (Peak 12.90M) | Time:00:01.32 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Loading render kernels (may take a few minutes the first time)
Fra:1 Mem:12.17M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.93 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Scene
Fra:1 Mem:12.17M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.93 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Shaders
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Procedurals
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Background
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Camera
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Meshes Flags
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Objects
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Objects | Copying Transformations to device
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Objects | Applying Static Transformations
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Particle Systems
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Particle Systems | Copying Particles to device
Fra:1 Mem:12.67M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Meshes
Fra:1 Mem:12.76M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Mesh | Computing attributes
Fra:1 Mem:12.80M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.00M, Peak:0.00M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Mesh | Copying Attributes to device
Fra:1 Mem:12.80M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.05M, Peak:0.05M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Scene BVH | Building
Fra:1 Mem:12.80M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.95 | Mem:0.05M, Peak:0.05M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Scene BVH | Building BVH
Fra:1 Mem:13.13M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.05M, Peak:0.05M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Scene BVH | Packing BVH triangles and strands
Fra:1 Mem:13.44M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.05M, Peak:0.05M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Scene BVH | Packing BVH nodes
Fra:1 Mem:13.72M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.05M, Peak:0.05M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Scene BVH | Copying BVH to device
Fra:1 Mem:13.74M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.50M, Peak:0.50M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Mesh | Computing normals
Fra:1 Mem:13.94M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.50M, Peak:0.50M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Mesh | Copying Mesh to device
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.70M, Peak:0.70M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Objects Flags
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.70M, Peak:0.70M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Images
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.70M, Peak:0.70M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Camera Volume
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.70M, Peak:0.70M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Lookup Tables
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.95M, Peak:0.95M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Lights
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.95M, Peak:0.95M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Lights | Computing distribution
Fra:1 Mem:13.91M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.96 | Mem:0.95M, Peak:0.95M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Integrator
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:2.22M, Peak:2.22M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Film
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:1.97M, Peak:2.22M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Lookup Tables
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Baking
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Device | Writing constant memory
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Device | Writing constant memory | Compiling render kernels
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Updating Device | Writing constant memory
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.97 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Rendered 0/40 Tiles
Fra:1 Mem:17.03M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:01.98 | Remaining:00:00.04 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Rendered 1/40 Tiles
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Fra:1 Mem:15.57M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:02.00 | Remaining:00:00.00 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Rendered 37/40 Tiles
Fra:1 Mem:15.45M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:02.00 | Remaining:00:00.00 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Rendered 38/40 Tiles
Fra:1 Mem:15.32M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:02.00 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Rendered 39/40 Tiles
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:02.00 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Rendered 40/40 Tiles
Fra:1 Mem:15.19M (Peak 27.23M) | Time:00:02.00 | Mem:2.23M, Peak:2.23M | Scene, View Layer | Finished
Unable to open a display
Aborted (core dumped)
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1 Answer 1

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Blender Cycles does not support headless rendering when using Grease Pencil :( c.f. https://developer.blender.org/T75952

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