The problem with this is that I need my planes to have four equal straight sides and four right angles. So is there any way to do this? (maybe with geo nodes (which I completely have no experience with))
You can do this with Duplifaces, by parenting a plane to your sphere.
Subdivide a cube enough times and add a Cast modifier to make it perfectly spherical.
Add a plane and scale it appropriately, then parent it to the sphere with Ctrl + P.
Under the Object tab of the Properties Window activate the Faces option in the Instancing panel.
If you want them as separate independent objects select your sphere then go to Object > Apply > Make Instances Real