Method 1 - Split Vertices
Such engraved lines can be created by splitting vertices and using the Solidify and Bevel modifier. The vertices of edges can be split manually in Edit mode (V + Enter) or mark them as Sharp and use the Split Edge modifier.
The vertices around the circle are split manually, the others are marked as sharp.
Modifier stack is:
- Subdivision Surface: level:
[_] Edge Angle (unchecked),
[X] Sharp Edges
- Solidify: default values
- Bevel: Segments:
2, Limited Method:
Video: Modeling Techniques Hardsurface in Blender combined - Pedro Augusto (The part about panels comes towards the end of the video.)
Method 2 - Boolean Modifier
Alternatively, you can copy the model parts, use the Boolean modifier (operation: Difference) to cut it out, and another Boolean modifier (operation: Intersection) on the copy to get the cut-out part. This way you have a deep cut between the parts. Finally, add a Bevel modifier to each part. And tick the Shading →
[X] Harden Normals option in the Bevel modifier to fix the shading.
Note: This requires in the Object Data Properties the Normals →
[X] Auto Smooth setting to be activated.
The Bool Cutter object on the screenshot is 2 cubes join together. One cuts the sphere at the top, the other one cuts it at the bottom. The sphere is actually 2 spheres (one is the middle part, the other one is the top and bottom parts).
Video: Blender Hard Surface Modeling | Slice Operation
Method 3 - Mask Modifier
A flexible method that uses the existing edge loops of the mesh and Bevel and Mask modifiers to create the support loops and the gap. It's described here by Robin Betts:
What is the best way to model the intersection of multiple hard-surface pieces?