This is the effect I want to achieve using the node editor:
This is what I've come up with so far:
Node editor setup:
I'm using Cycles render. Any help would be greatly appreciated! :)
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Briefly, unpack how these things look and get the nodes to represent your intention. You want the dust to accumulate on certain surfaces based on the forces being applied.
That said, seeing the dust in your example, I don't think this is easily achieveable with nodes and you might be better served painting a map or two by hand. The reason is that some of the mechanics in play are hard to express with nodes. For example "I want dust to accumulate on upward facing surfaces, but only on the back of the vehicle where it isn't blown off" is- by itself- at least 2 nodes. Then you have rough surfaces and smooth surfaces that violate that rule, some places where it sticks underneath, and so on.
I'd suggest studying the reference photos and painting a mask or two to help control where the dust appears in general. Then, from there, use your noise maps and procedural generation to take it to the next level of detail.