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I'm wondering what transformations are calculated exactly in Blender's "Color Management" if I set "Display Device" to "sRGB" and "View Transform" to "Standard" (my Blender version is 2.92 Alpha). Is this only a "Gamma Correction" or is there more?

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View transforms determine data convertion from scene referred linear information in blender to display referred formats.

Paraphrasing from the original https://sobotka.github.io/filmic-blender/

Standard.
It will only use a range of scene referred values from 1 to 1.0 (any larger values will be clipped) when converting to display referred values, and applies a transfer function ("gamma") of 2.2.
Should be avoided at all costs for CGI work. Useful in some edge cases for albedo textures, for example.

This view transform should be used when dealing with display referred images in video editing, or for grease pencil projects

Non-Colour Data.
This is a view useful for evaluating a data format. Do not expect to see perceptual values however, as it is literally data dumped directly to the screen. Use this transform on your buffer, via the UV Image Viewer Properties panel, if your buffer represents data and not colour information. This will keep it out of the OpenColorIO transformation pipeline chain and leave it as data.

Raw
This is a colour managed linearized version of your data. For all intents an purposes, will look identical to Non-Colour Data, but applied to colour based data such as an image.

Filmic Log Encoding Base.
This is the workhorse View for all of your rendering work. Setting it in the View will result in a log encoded appearance, which will look exceptionally low contrast. Use this if you want to adjust the image for grading using another tool such as Resolve, with no additional modifications. Save to a high bit depth display referred format such as 16 bit TIFF. This basic view is designed to be coupled with one of the contrast looks.

For a deeper explanation read:

Render with a wider dynamic range in cycles to produce photorealistic looking images

And if you really want to fall down the rabbit hole of understanding color for digital imaging read Troy Sobotka's

The Hitchheiker's Guide to Digital Color

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