Things have not changed from 6 years ago. The console is not a window that is part of the blender's user interface, but one that belongs to the operating system.
You can enable the system console from blender using the top menu's Window > Toggle System Console.
That will open a totally different window, with the console and all messages from python will appear there.
There is no option to open a terminal window from within blender, the terminal window must be opened before and the blender program should be run from terminal.
On Mint/Cinnamon, the app launcher can be set to Launch in terminal. That way the terminal window is always available.