I need to create test file for my program. But it only accepts polygons with 3 vertices - triangles as input. How can I convert all polygons of some object into triangles?
I know how to select all faces, but how to split them into triangles.
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You can select all the faces and go to Face > Triangulate Faces in the 3D View header (or just press Ctrl+T for the same effect) while in Edit Mode.
As ideasman42 pointed out in the comments, Face > Poke Faces will also triangulate the mesh by adding a vertex in the center of each face and fan-filling around the vertex, it may give preferred results for certain cases, for example, cylinder caps.
You could also add a 'Triangulate' modifier to the object and apply it:
Visualisation of the two methods:
There is also an easy way to do it through Blender's Python API:
bpy.ops.mesh.quads_convert_to_tris(quad_method='FIXED', ngon_method='BEAUTY') #if you want a faster way
bpy.ops.mesh.quads_convert_to_tris(quad_method='BEAUTY', ngon_method='BEAUTY') #If you want nicer cuts