The problem is definitely topology. You have a lone vertex that the bevel must eventually reach which, precisely because it's a lone vertex, and not a series of subdivided edges, will never be able to be reached (red arrow). You need a number of subdivisions at that location which matches the number of subdivisions for the row of edges to be beveled (represented here by the green line and dots).
Instead, rebuild the floor as follows:
Now, when you select the line of edges where the wall and floor meet, and perform a bevel, you get this: