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Why is it, that when rendering, if the camera is facing in the direction of the sun, the sun doesn't show up in the sky? When a camera ray is cast straight in the direction of the sky, It shuld end up hitting it, and creating a bright spot on the render. Instead, there is no way to point a camera so that it picks up sun lamp light indirectly. How do I change that? (I want a visible sun without the use of a HDRI)

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    $\begingroup$ You could always "fake" a sun by making a sphere with a bright emission, and playing with bloom settings. $\endgroup$ Jun 5 '20 at 21:45
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The sun is not really a lamp. It is an abstraction that sets a light direction from an infinitely far away place, and it doesn't have a real place in the 3d workspace. In other words: Only the rotation will determine the direction of the lights and shadows, regardless of placement.

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If you want a lamp that when placed in the 3d environment shines from a specific specific point, then use a point light (or a spot or area light).

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By default. lamps do not appear in the rendered image.
There are two options to make a light source visible:

  • Add some volume scattering to the world, and that will create a hazy atmosphere (think of what happens in the real world with smog or suspended particles), the light source will be thus revealed.

enter image description here

Or

  • Make a mesh with an emission shader insted of (or on top of) using lamps.

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  • $\begingroup$ So there isn't a setting to get lights to render indirectly. I thought there would be something hidden in the settings, that'd turn that on. After all, when the camera ray is cast, there should at least be an option to check if it's colliding with any lamps. $\endgroup$
    – vitrack
    Jun 7 '20 at 12:31

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