# Pin cloth vertices at a specific set of frames, and un-pin otherwise (in python)

I am using Blender 2.82a and am trying to pin cloth vertices only at a specific set of frames.

The broader context is to simulate actions on a cloth, where each action is parameterized by a cloth and a set of vertex indices. What I hope to do is something like this:

• Frames 0-49: let cloth settle.
• Frames 50-99, apply action by pinning vertices on frame 50, moving them with armatures, then releasing the vertices.
• Frames 100-149: let cloth settle.
• Frames 150-199: apply another action (using the same pinning+armature technique). This may require a pinned group to be created on the fly here, because the prior action might have changed the cloth state.
• Rinse and repeat, to get a sequence of actions and "simulator updates."

Obviously these frame counts are not precise and would be tuned accordingly. [However, this may be complex, so my focus is simply on pinning vertices for a specific set of frames.]

Here is my minimal working example. Some is boilerplate to get a video that makes sense, the interesting stuff is in action:

import bpy
import numpy as np
from mathutils import Vector

def clear_scene():
for block in bpy.data.meshes:
if block.users == 0:
bpy.data.meshes.remove(block)
bpy.ops.object.mode_set(mode='OBJECT')
bpy.ops.object.select_all(action='SELECT')
bpy.ops.object.delete()

location=(0.0, -3.5, 2.2),
)
bpy.context.scene.camera = bpy.context.object
type='SUN',
location=(33.2, -23.6, 17.4),
)
bpy.data.worlds["World"].node_tree.nodes["Background"].inputs[0].default_value = (1, 1, 1, 1)

def make_plane():
"""Underlying plane. Use collision so that it can support cloth on top."""
bpy.ops.transform.resize(value=(6.0, 6.0, 6.0))

def make_cloth():
"""Make a plane at height 0.2m (it then settles on the plane) and sub-divide."""
bpy.ops.object.editmode_toggle()
bpy.ops.mesh.subdivide(number_cuts=20)
bpy.ops.object.editmode_toggle()

# Colors
mat = bpy.data.materials.new(name="CustomColor")
mat.use_nodes = False
mat.diffuse_color = (0,1,0,0)
bpy.context.object.data.materials.append(mat)

return bpy.context.object

def action(cloth, vertex_idxs):
"""Apply an action: pick up cloth at these vertex indices.

We add an armature and make it the parent of a pinned vertex group. Parent set:
https://docs.blender.org/api/current/bpy.ops.object.html#bpy.ops.object.parent_set
"""

# Select the cloth _in_addition_ to the armature. The active one is the parent.
arm = bpy.context.object
cloth.select_set(True)
bpy.context.view_layer.objects.active = arm
bpy.ops.object.parent_set(type='ARMATURE_NAME')

# Next, go back to the cloth, and pin the designated vertices.
bpy.ops.object.select_all(action='DESELECT')
bpy.context.view_layer.objects.active = cloth
gripped_group = bpy.context.object.vertex_groups.new(name='Pinned')
cloth.modifiers["Cloth"].settings.vertex_group_mass = 'Pinned'

# The arm modifier must be at the TOP of the modifier stack (over cloth)!
for _ in range(2):
bpy.ops.object.modifier_move_up(modifier="Armature")

# Pinned set for the armature. Note: the arm's default name is 'Bone'.
b_group = bpy.context.object.vertex_groups["Bone"]

# Now animate by assigning the arm to different positions at certain keyframes.
bpy.context.view_layer.objects.active = arm
bpy.ops.object.posemode_toggle()
frames = [0, 50, 100]

# Two keyframes at the same spot for no application of armature movement.
for b in arm.pose.bones:
b.keyframe_insert("location", frame=frames[0])
b.keyframe_insert("location", frame=frames[1])
c = arm.pose.bones["Bone"]
c.location += Vector((0, 0.25, 0))
for b in arm.pose.bones:
b.keyframe_insert("location", frame=frames[2])

if __name__ == '__main__':
clear_scene()
make_plane()
cloth = make_cloth()
bpy.context.scene.render.resolution_x = 720
bpy.context.scene.render.resolution_y = 480

# Normally we'd get vertex_idxs automatically by selecting an image pixel and
# converting to indices. But for instructional purposes, hard-code one index.
vertex_idxs = [0]
action(cloth, vertex_idxs)


If this is saved in test-pinning-at-frame.py then you can run blender -P test-pinning-at-frame.py. Upon baking the simulation and then generating the video, I get:

Therefore, by using the keyframe_insert method for the arm, I am able to apply the actions at specified frames. In the video above, that's frames 50 through 100, out of 250 total.

However, there is a key problem. The video shows the cloth's vertices are pinned right from the start, which you can see when the cloth settles and before the armature's action applies. I'd like to get the pinning relationship to actually start on frame 50, which is when the keyframes tell Blender to move the armature upwards. But I am not sure how to do that. Putting this in the main method right before the call to action(cloth, vertex_idxs):

for f in range(50):
bpy.context.scene.frame_set(f)


does not seem to have any effect. Another related issue is how to un-pin after originally pinning.

Using Google to search for "python blender pin vertices at specific frames", I get the following references: this, this, this, this and this, among others. I don't think any of these relate to the question. My impression is that this is a keyframe_insert thing where maybe we can enforce a keyframe for a pinning. Would that be the way to go?

Update 1 (08 June 2020): I managed to partially resolve my question but not entirely. To summarize this devtalk post, we can use this minimal working example (from pastebin) to generate the following:

Code summary: initialize the cloth at a height of 0.200m, and let the cloth settle for the first 50 frames. Then for the next 50 frames, define keyframes that move the lower left corner (with respect to the camera view) up by 0.300m. The main differences with the above code is that this new code adds a reset method to try and remove older pinned vertex groups and uses the frame_set method to advance frames.

This almost works, except that at frame 51, the lower left vertex immediately jumps from the height at rest (which is 0.034m) to 0.200m, the original height. Then, over the next 49 frames, it correctly goes up by 0.300m, so that it reaches 0.500m. But, this is undesirable: the height should go from 0.034m to 0.334m over frames 51 to 100. The code in the pastebin will print out the height of the lower left vertex.

It appears that Blender uses the initial vertex positions to begin the pinning relationship, which is undesirable because the cloth state has changed.

Update 2 (08 June 2020): another possible solution (inspired by this question) is to do multiple animations separately and then combine them later. So, we can run one Blender script for one action, then save the state, and run another Blender script for the next action, and so on. Unfortunately this won't preserve modifiers (see this question) and when I write code to explicitly add the modifiers back in (such as subsurf or solidify) I get bad physics with the vertex count increasing, as shown in the linked question.

• Maybe, add weight mix modifier, and use python for... I don't know... to enabling this modifier... but you can use keyframes for it.. – Crantisz Jun 8 '20 at 12:56
• Interesting @Crantisz so with this weight mix modifier, perhaps there is a way to make the "strength" of the pinned group go to 0, so that it does not have any effect in practice? – ComputerScientist Jun 8 '20 at 17:58

so with this weight mix modifier, perhaps there is a way to make the "strength" of the pinned group go to 0, so that it does not have any effect in practice?

This is my test. Hope, this is what you are looking for.

How it's done. First I'm using hook instead of armature, but it doesn't matter, it will work with armature also.

So I created 2 vertex groups. One is empty, one with hooked vertexes. Empty group it is just vertex group without any vertex in it. It uses to create "0 value".

Next, I added Vertex Weight Mix modifier, Group A is empty, Group B is Pinned group. Mix set is All, so empty group will have a result of mixing

To make modifier enable and disable, I animated Global Influence. I found that 50% influence is good, 100% gain extreme acceleration.

Finally, note, that the order of modifiers is important: Vertex Weight Mix and Hock (Armature) modifiers must be before Cloth. Here the modifier stack:

This method expandable, if you want to add different pin group, add one more Vertex Weight Mix modifier.

Maybe, you find also interesting my answer about how to unpin vertexes using object proximity: Animate the peeling of top sealed packaging

• Nice, thank you so much @Crantisz :) I will download and run the .blend file. Quick question: do the hooks need to be created at the beginning of the cloth animation (frame 0), or can they be created at later frames? The reason is that I am working with actions which can change the cloth. At later frames, the cloth will look different from the initial state due to the past actions we applied, such as folding cloth. Hence, new hooks need to be created on arbitrary frames. I wonder if Blender has that capability? – ComputerScientist Jun 8 '20 at 23:20
• Actually here's another thought. What about if I assign one hook to one vertex? So, if I make a plane and then sub-divide by 20, I will get 484 vertices, hence 484 hooks. This might offer the most flexibility because I already can get the nearest cloth point to an image pixel. Then, I can map it to the hook. – ComputerScientist Jun 9 '20 at 12:27
• Hi @Crantisz, thank you again for the answer. I just have one more favor. Is it possible for you to show how to create a second hook on the opposite cloth corner, and then show it dragging in the opposite direction for the second pull? I will award the full bounty for sure if that is possible. I am having some trouble figuring out the sequence of clicks for this from the .blend file because I normally use Python. Also, with second actions, I am wondering if I will run into the problem of cloth vertices not using their updated locations. – ComputerScientist Jun 10 '20 at 15:33
• To be specific, here's my concern. I find that if you make a second hook at the beginning (frame 0) and you set the left cloth corner vertex to it, then when you make the hook move later (at frame 100 for example) it will assume that the cloth vertex is at the original spot, instead of further to the right from the first action. In other words the pinned vertices do not have updated positions. Or is this doable if you make the hook at a later frame? – ComputerScientist Jun 10 '20 at 15:47
• From the .blend file, if you make the global influence 1, then indeed it is very aggressive, and this means the vertex will go right back to where it began. :(. This is why it is necessary to start from a global influence of 0 and then gradually increase it. Unfortunately this still means the original vertex position is affecting things, rather than the updated vertex position. I wonder if there is a workaround to just use updated vertex positions? – ComputerScientist Jun 10 '20 at 16:43

Another possible solution would be to update the bone's starting pose position by the offset of the evaluated vertex's position from it's original position.

Here is an example based off of your "minimal working example" script (starting from line 116).

# Keyframe inserts need to use b.[...] attributes, like b.location.
depsgraph = bpy.context.evaluated_depsgraph_get()
cloth_upd = cloth.evaluated_get(depsgraph)
v_c  = [cloth.matrix_world @ v.co for v in list(cloth.data.vertices)]
v_cd = [cloth_upd.matrix_world @ v.co for v in list(cloth_upd.data.vertices)]
arm.pose.bones["Bone"].location = Vector((0, (v_cd[vertex_idxs[0]][2] - v_c[vertex_idxs[0]][2]), 0))


NOTE: Only the bone's Z axis is updated because only the vertex's Z axis changed.

This causes the pinned vertex to be snapped back to it's evaluated position when the pinning kicks in so you don't get the jump.

The drawbacks with this approach are:

1. For some reason it seems to mess with the physics and isn't 100% smooth, but it may be close enough depending on your usecase.

2. It only works properly for the rendered images -- not the viewport.

• Thanks! I will check out your proposed solution when I have time. – ComputerScientist Oct 24 '20 at 21:40

I didn't try it but another possible solution could be to use dynamic weight painting. So you setup your cloth as a dynamic paint canvas and use another object as a dynamic paint brush. when the brush is intersecting the canvas, the weight changes to 1, if you move it out of the canvas, the weight changes to 0. then just setup the vertex group as pinning group and when the weight changes to zero it should get unpinned because there's essentially no vertices assigned to the group anymore. maybe you can get it to work

• Hi @EANIIX thanks for the answer. It may be more useful to include a minimal working example script. I am still testing this out. – ComputerScientist Jun 14 '20 at 13:50
• Yes, this also works, but I prefer my variant because dynamic paint needs to be baked. Dynamic paint is useful for more complex cases. – Crantisz Aug 24 '20 at 21:05