I am brand new to Blender. Currently creating donut with tutorial series from Blender Guru and immediately run into problem. Do you have any ideas how to get rid of these ugly artifacts in object mode?
Use reasonable view port clipping range in your 3D view, please.
There are fixed amount of precision degree in view port (32 bit perhaps?). If you make the view port cover range too large (from 0.000001 to 1000), it will cause z-fighting in your scene.
If you're doing that infamous tutorial, use these setting should handle your scene correctly.
Should fix it
Your .blend file is either glitched or you changed some settings. I tried pasting some of my personal meshes into your .blend file and the same artifacts appear.