It sounds like you want a copy of what's showing on the viewport, but rendered to an image using the camera's resolution settings.
There are several options, each with their own caveats:
1) OpenGL Render
You may want the "OpenGL Render." There are some settings for this in their own section of the render settings panel, and there is a "render OpenGL image" button at the bottom of the viewport, which looks like a photo camera. Incidentally, there's also a "Render OpenGL Animation" button right next to it.
This will give you an image that's exactly the same as what you see in your viewport, but anti-aliased (if OpenGL AA is turned on) and at the resolution you set for your render.
2) Emissive Shader
If you're wanting a "shadeless" equivalent for Cycles, the closest you'll get is using an emission shader. Create your textures as an emission shader (start with a strength of 1) and it won't accept any shading, making it nice and even... incidentally, emission shaders also render much faster than other shaders.
3) Direct Lighting
If THAT doesn't work, I'd make a giant emissive plane right behind the camera to light your material plane evenly, and then render using the "Direct Lighting" preset (or something similar). This won't be as fast as an emission shader, but it will refrain from calculating any additional bounces (if it can't find the light after one bounce, that pixel is considered unlit).
Hope that helps.