I don't know the legitimate term for them, but I'm referring to the "shaded" or "stripy" regions that appear that can appear in your models (see the picture below)
Here is a contrived example deliberately created to reproduce the artifacts:
What are these artifacts called? I did a few google searches to learn more about this but came up short because I can only describe them as "visual artifacts" which is too broad.
What is causing these artifacts to appear? In both cases there are overlapping faces, but what causes Blender to show them in the way that it does? To approach from another angle: why could Blender not "simply" ignore overlapping faces?
Are there general strategies one would take to fixing these issues? If so, what?
Even a link to a resource that explains this would be appreciated.