Most (all?) of those effects can be easily replicated using the standard Principled Shader and Principled Volume shader, with the surface shader providing the IOR and surface interactions (eg, reflectivity, refraction, etc.) and the volume providing any scattering and absorption (but at a suitably low density).
At small scales the volumetric effects are negligible, making the water appear almost clear, the skewed absoption colours (set it with higher Blue, medium Green and low Red) give the different colors at different depths, the scatter can give volumetric rays and the IOR (again) will give 'Snell's window' effects when viewed from within.
This just needs something like the following (note the low Roughness, high Transmission, low(ish) volume Density, blueish volume absorption). I've also added Displacement for adding distortion to the surface.
You might want to tweak the settings slightly to get realistic behaviour with a specific scale - you should always ensure you model at 'real world' scales to ensure it's more physically accurate. In particular, the absorption and scattering (so the volumetric density) will be sensitive to scale.