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When I print the camera view to a jpg file, the file size is about 650k. I would like to have a much higher resolution picture, with a file size of at least 3MB.

How do I do that?

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What you are referencing "650k" and "3MB" is the file size, not the image resolution. While an increase in resolution likely increases the file size, it actually depends on the image format and its encoding/compression. A very high resolution image can be small in file size with a good compression algorithm.

When talking about image resolution this typically means the number of pixels stored in the images, which is commonly written as the number of pixel on the horizontal axis (X-axis) times the number of pixels on the vertical axis (Y-axis), e.g. 1920x1080. This resolution can be adjusted in the Output tab in Blender.

Output tab

If for some reason you really need to create image files with a certain file size, then I'd suggest using a file format without compression which lets you estimate the resulting file size based on the resolution and the overhead from the header, trailer and additional metadata of the file format.

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(Assuming Blender 2.80) Go to the tab shown in the screenshot and increase the pixel count for the x- and y- axis and set the percentage to 100%. Doubling the resolution quadruples the render time though. enter image description here

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Well, the size of the file depends on the following factors (as per my knowledge):

  1. Resolution of the image being rendered.
  2. The amount of Samples being used during Rendering.
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  • $\begingroup$ A higher number of samples doesn't mean that the file size will be larger. The number of samples is relevant for the path trace integrator to get a clean render result with (hopefully) little noise. The relation of samples to file size is likely somewhat inversely proportional, because noisy renders harder to compress than one with lots of even colors on surfaces. $\endgroup$ – Robert Gützkow Sep 9 '19 at 7:52

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