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I've built a 3D model of a sampling paddle (used to demonstrate random sampling to students of statistics) in Blender 3D, which I'm planning to use as my first endeavor into 3D printing.

During validation, I noticed that the model contains quite a few non-manifold edges (using Select > Select All By Trait > Non Manifold). However, I'm unsure how to proceed with fixing the model. Everything appears to be joined/connected, and I've removed/merged any duplicate vertices. I'd appreciate any advice so that I can move forward with my first print!

I used a cylinder to "punch out" the holes via a Boolean Difference operation.

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ Hard to see... maybe some inner faces on the handle part, but for the cylinders you should updload the model so we can have a look (use blend-exchange.giantcowfilms.com please) $\endgroup$ – lemon Jul 29 at 7:02
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    $\begingroup$ One part of the problem is that you have internal faces which you should delete (at the 3d cursor location and behind that another one)... I don't know whats going on with the circles being non-manifold. Maybe try reorienting normals( select all and then ctrl+N) otherwise upload the .blend as suggested by lemon. $\endgroup$ – Robert Roth Jul 29 at 13:10
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks @lemon, I've uploaded the associated .blend file. $\endgroup$ – littleK Jul 29 at 21:39
  • $\begingroup$ I'll try to do that, @RobertRoth. In the meantime, I've attached the .blend file. $\endgroup$ – littleK Jul 29 at 21:41
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  • One part of the problem is that you have internal faces which you should delete (see the first picture)
  • The problem at the circles can be solved with merge by distance (previously called "remove doubles"). You might also try to recalculate normals (Ctrl+N)
  • The other pictures show that the borders of some faces are not connected properly and how you can solve this.
  • When you see faces which are flickering ("face fighting") when you rotate view, you have two faces that are overlapping and sould delete one of them.

enter image description here

Happy Blending! :)

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    $\begingroup$ When you know this kind of modeling problems you will quickly be able to model objects so that they are manifold from the start, which will save all the repairing time. (But now it is time well spent, since you learn what to avoid) $\endgroup$ – Robert Roth Jul 29 at 22:46
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    $\begingroup$ Thanks again, @RobertRoth. I was able to apply your suggestions and remove all non-manifold elements. You’re right, having gone through this exercise will certainly impact the way I design models going forward, now that I can bend my mind around the overall concept. And it was fun to learn about the loop cut tool, too! $\endgroup$ – littleK Jul 30 at 2:13

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