With the logic setup below I'm trying to pause the game, then on any key stroke resume where it was paused. Trouble is when the BGE is Paused it seemingly can't listen for any input.
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It does appear that a suspended scene does not respond to any events, which sounds right when you think about it.
A solution is to use a second scene to control the play. When starting game play connect a scene actuator that sets a second scene as a scene overlay. This second scene only needs one object, which can be an empty, and contains the pause/resume pieces as you have shown, just with the pause/resume scene set to the first scene not the second that has the pause controls.
If you have setup a scene as an overlay to display scores etc then you can just use one of these objects.