I'm working on a rig and would like to know how to rig individual toes. I do not need the whole foot, just the toes. I cannot find anything online about this.
Is is generally hard to give any advice on a rig if the purpose for said rig is unknown.
Generally speaking, you need at least one Bone in Blender for every rigid limb in the real world. That means, in order mimic all possible motions of real toes, you'll need at least two bones for the big toe and at least three bones each for all the other toes.
If you're only working on toe animations, it's that easy. If the foot is only part of a bigger model (e.g. a full human body), I would absolutely recommend creating all the other bones that make up said foot. The best way to keep the resulting animation-workflow nice and clean, is to mimic the real body as closely as possible.