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I am making a to scale representation of our solar system. I made an 864,340 mile diameter sun with emission and placed a 7,917.6 mile diameter earth 92.96 million miles away. It has 3 layers, the ground, the clouds, and the atmosphere.

When the earth is placed at 0 ,0 ,0. Has all layers.

enter image description here

When the earth is placed at 0, 0, 92.96 million miles and lit by the massive sun.

enter image description here

When the clouds is placed around it at 0, 0, 92.96 million miles.

enter image description here

When the atmosphere is placed around it at 0, 0, 92.96 million miles.

enter image description here

When both the clouds and atmosphere is placed around it at 0, 0, 92.96 million miles.

enter image description here

Please note that I did attempt to remove the sun from render and I lit it with a lamp and there was no change.

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  • $\begingroup$ Have you adjusted the clipping? $\endgroup$
    – Leander
    May 25 '19 at 14:45
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    $\begingroup$ That a little bit too far where blender can hold the precision of the render equation. Did you change the unit scale for it? It might works when the value is in a reasonable size $\endgroup$
    – HikariTW
    May 25 '19 at 14:48
  • $\begingroup$ The issue has to do with the z buffer on very large distances. If the clip distance is too large you loose the ability to distinguish from objects that are too close to each other (like all of the layers for the clouds and atmosphere. Reduce the clipping distance so that it encompasses only the object being rendered and not the whole universe. $\endgroup$
    – user1853
    May 25 '19 at 14:51
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    $\begingroup$ In any case the issue, in my opinon, is that the scene is at resolution and scale where extremely large and small distances cannot be accurately calculated. I would suggest just baking the textures into a single material and a single mesh to render at long distances, and use a more detailed set if meshes and materials for close ups, or have some form of adaptive resolution (LOD), which I know nothing about. $\endgroup$
    – user1853
    May 25 '19 at 16:28

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