It would be VERY DIFFICULT do do this procedurally in blender using cycles nodes. This could be done in Substance Designer without as much sweat, but that still might prove a challenge.
A free, easy tool to achieve this affect is JSplacment. This lightweight program excels at generating unique and customizable sci-fi patterns for use in CG programs, like blender.
To get started with JSplacment, you can download it here: https://windmillart.net/?p=jsplacement
A good tutorial for these patterns is this: https://youtu.be/ee59XU3fKFw (He uses C4D as his main 3D program, but the way you create them for use in Blender is identical)
I hope this helps!
There is an excellent step by step tutorial by Simon Thommes, starting at 1h30 here> https://youtu.be/8LD5UA_Zktg?t=5376