In the rendering tab, I am missing numerous options such as anti-aliasing and shading. Is there a toggle in user preferences for expanded rendering options?
Cycles rendering is different than the blender internal rendering (this applies for v2.79b and lower).
You can however acces the Anti-aliasing settings if you really want to.
Under sampling enable branched path tracing and you should see the option for AA.
The Shading options also differ.
They are split into the world and object properties.
Everyting else you can probably edit via the node editor.