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I'm writting my Thesis about a method for an additive manufacturing method for thinks like styrofoam aka EPS.

Now I want to simulate the light distrubution in small balls of Polystyrol hit by a concentrated sun beam (with a telescope with an angle) and with a normal laser ray (parallel monocrome light).

My first question is if there is a possibility to get the color distortion of PS like shown in the wikipedia picture. In the nodes I don't see a possability.

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ What you see in that image is internal stress of that material that is visualized by polarization filters. So you need spectral renderer, but not an ordinary one that does just spectral diffraction and thin-film coating, but one that does light polarization. You will have very hard time finding one, not even Maxwell render does that (does not do polarization, fluorescence or phosphorescence). You can look at some experimental engines, this paper is from 2016 and they might have some demo to try. $\endgroup$ – Jaroslav Jerryno Novotny Dec 13 '18 at 0:55
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Cycles, or really any renderer for graphics is not a completely physically accurate model of light. Cycles in particular uses an rgb based model for colour, rather than a spectral model (luxrender does use a spectral model for colour which may get slightly better results for stuff like this). As far as I know, neither bother to model things like coherence or polarity or anything like that.

Either way, material properties and light effects are vastly simplified in order to provide visually appealing results in a reasonable amount of time and to make it easy for artists to build materials without detailed scientific knowledge of the interactions between light and various materials.

These kind of rendering engines are not and never will be scientific simulations. If you want to find a scientific simulation of light, you will need to look elsewhere for programs build for that purpose.

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It is not possible to simulate light interactions in a physically accurate way in Blender.

I believe what you are observing there is thin film interference, so it is likely not only polystyrene that we are looking at, but it's coated with something. Producing this effect visually a bit more accurately is possible in other renderers like Maxwell, there are also OSL shaders for Cycles that only render on CPU if you only needed the visuals for presentation. You could check this huge mess of a thread on Blenderartists.org if you wanted to find out more about it. You might also find it interesting to look at what this guy is doing here with spectral rendering in Cycles. However all of this would only be for pretty pictures and as Sazerac pointed out in his answer, it is far far away from physical simulations. The links might provide you with more insight why though.

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