In the image below I would like only the light that passes through the sphere, in this case the bright dot in the center, to be visible. Is there a way to set this up in cycles?
See this .blend file. I used nodes with the Transmission Depth node and two emission shaders joined with a mix shader. Set the green one to 0 strength and it should have the desired effect. I'll post a screen shot of the node set up in a moment. (The node set up for the lamp. It's a point source directly above the glass sphere.)