I’m interested on how to distort typography, patterns etc. which partially lie underneath a drop of liquid. See example below.
How would you approach this?
It's as simple as you wrote about it. Create a drop of fluid and place it on your textured mesh or just mesh with modeled pattern.
You can create drop of fluid with box modeling, sculpting, fluid simulation or even soft body. It's completely up to you.
Nothing more than a plane and fluid drop - in this case sculpted with mouse from a sphere.
Even simpler - Principled shader with Transmission set to 1, IOR: 1.33 and Roughness: 0.