I would like to convert a given image (say a binary image) into a .svg (or the outline into a path). I figured out that this could be accomplished with Inkscape. However, I need this to be a part of my new addon, meaning it should rely only on blender or python. Any ideas?
Directly from Blender only using python can be done via pypotrace. This is a python package that binds to potrace. potrace is also used by InkScape for converting images to Paths. You will need to include potrace and pypotrace in your add-on.
The result of the trace is a path. You will need to develop to you likings how to convert this to an SVG. But as SVG is just an XML file that will not be that hard.