When starting the blender, there is always a cube on the floor. The floor is actually a grid. My question is how to make this grid bigger so that we can measure big stuff?
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I assume you are talking about this grid in perspective view...
Since your goal is to measure things relative to a grid, you can use orthographic view to do that, which makes it easier to construct geometry. Here's how it looks like:
this is the same cube in orthographic projection viewed from above. It is easy to get there. Assuming you are still using the default key mapping (you havn;t changed the keyboard settings) you can get to orthographic by pressing 5 on the numpad and then pressing 7 on the numpad for top view, and 3 or 1 on numpad for other directions.
Hope that helps. If further clarification is needed, feel free to add a comment.
So you insert a plain, which is 2x2 initially, as you can see.
now I scale it to 50x50...
That just go big. now I get to orthographic view with numpad 5...
And now I switch to top view...
As you can see now, the grid is now spread in all directions infinitely. You can zoom out to see that...
this is the same 50x50 plain.
What you might complain that you can't see the grid inside the plain? Well, for that just switch to wireframe (*by pressing z). Here's how that looks like..
That's one way of getting what you want.
You can change the size of the grid to accommodate your needs.
Press N to reveal the properties shelf.
On the Display tab you can change the grid floor number of lines and scale. The left side of the screen will show info on the scale of the units used.
From the wiki:
Lines defines the number of lines that will make the "floor grid" up. If N is the number defined, there will be a total amount of N/2 lines at each side of X and Y axes. For odd values of N, the amount of lines will be rounded down.
Scale defines the distance between grid lines, either in the "floor grid" and the infinite grid.
Subdivisions defines the amount of lines into which the infinite grid should be subdivided. Level of subdivision depends on zoom, in predefined orthographic views.
Other way to deal with large (or very small) objects is changing the scale on Properties->Scene->Units->Scale
Besides the floor grid, Blender has some built in measuring tools that you might find useful.
If you go on Edit mode (Tab), you can access the Mesh Display tab, that allows you to display different measurements (length, angle, areas) of the selected edges or faces of an object.